Recognition and Management of Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosum Versus Livedoid Vasculitis: A Case Report.
Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosum (CPAN) is a vasculitis of small and medium-sized muscular arteries of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue with no associated systemic involvement. A common presentation of CPAN can be misinterpreted as a non-invasive form of livedoid vasculitis, synonymous with the 'atrophie blanche' which similarly presents as ivory-white stellate-shaped scars. Although hyperpigmentation can also be present, as seen in our 47-year-old female patient, cutaneous polyarteritis nodosum is unique due to the etiology of the inflammatory illness which requires a deep, segmented skin biopsy for diagnosis in order to identify the vessel inflammation. In this case report, we discuss a patient with a 20-year history of painful, recurrent ulcerations and polyneuritis with previous ulcer eruptions that healed as ivory-white stellate scarring. AB cutaneous forms of polyarteritis nodosum (PAN) may be only one manifestation of the disease, with other presentations in association with multi-organ system disease. This report will discuss the necessity of a high index of clinical suspicion with a clinical presentation similar to that of our patient. We will discuss the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of cutaneous vasculitis, such as CPAN, based on clinical presentation and history in hopes of limiting morbidity and the risk of progression to systemic forms of the disease.