Demographic and clinical predictors of progression and mortality in connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease: a retrospective cohort study
BACKGROUND Connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD) is associated with reduced quality of life and poor prognosis. Prior studies have not identified a consistent combination of variables that accurately predict prognosis in CTD-ILD. The objective of this study was to identify baseline demographic and clinical characteristics that are associated with progression and mortality in CTD-ILD.
METHODS Patients were retrospectively identified from an adult CTD-ILD clinic. The predictive significance of baseline variables on serial forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusion capacity (DLCO), and six-minute walk distance (6MWD) was assessed using linear mixed effects models, and Cox regression analysis was performed to assess impact on mortality.
RESULTS 359 patients were included in the study. Median follow-up time was 4.0 (IQR 1.5-7.6) years. On both unadjusted and multivariable analysis, male sex and South Asian ethnicity were associated with decline in FVC. Male sex, positive smoking history, and diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) vs. other CTD were associated with decline in DLCO. Male sex and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern predicted decline in 6MWD. There were 85 (23.7%) deaths. Male sex, older age, First Nations ethnicity, and a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis vs. rheumatoid arthritis were predictors of mortality on unadjusted and multivariable analysis.
CONCLUSION Male sex, older age, smoking, South Asian or First Nations ethnicity, and UIP pattern predicted decline in lung function and/or mortality in CTD-ILD. Further longitudinal studies may add to current clinical prediction models for prognostication in CTD-ILD.